**Misconception #1**: If P.05, the null hypothesis has only a 5% chance of being true.

**Misconception #2:** A nonsignificant difference (eg, P .05) means there is no difference between groups.

**Misconception #3:** A statistically significant finding is clinically important.

**Misconception #4:** Studies with P values on opposite sides of .05 are conflicting.

**Misconception #5:** Studies with the same P value provide the same evidence against the null hypothesis.

**Misconception #6:** P .05 means that we have observed data that would occur only 5% of the time under the null hypothesis.

**Misconception #7:** P .05 and P <.05 mean the same thing.

**Misconception #8:** P values are properly written as inequalities (eg, “P <.02” when P .015)

**Misconception #9:** P .05 means that if you reject the null hypothesis, the probability of a type I error is only 5%.

**Misconception #10:** With a P .05 threshold for significance, the chance of a type I error will be 5%.

**Misconception #11:** You should use a one-sided P value when you don’t care about a result in one direction, or a difference in that direction is impossible.

**Misconception #12:** A scientific conclusion or treatment policy should be based on whether or not the P value is significant.

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